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Про куриный супчик, грипп и хемотаксис

Chicken Soup Inhibits Neutrophil Chemotaxis In Vitro*

   1. Barbara O. Rennard, BA,
   2. Ronald F. Ertl, BS,
   3. Gail L. Gossman, BS,
   4. Richard A. Robbins, MD, FCCP and
   5. Stephen I. Rennard, MD, FCCP

+ Author Affiliations

      *From the Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Section, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE.

   1. Correspondence to: Stephen I. Rennard, MD, FCCP, Larson Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Section, 985125 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5125; e-mail: srennard@unmc.edu

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Chicken soup has long been regarded as a remedy for symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections. As it is likely that the clinical similarity of the spanerse infectious processes that can result in “colds” is due to a shared inflammatory response, an effect of chicken soup in mitigating inflammation could account for its attested benefits. To evaluate this, a traditional chicken soup was tested for its ability to inhibit neutrophil migration using the standard Boyden blindwell chemotaxis chamber assay with zymosan-activated serum and fMet-Leu-Phe as chemoattractants. Chicken soup significantly inhibited neutrophil migration and did so in a concentration-dependent manner. The activity was present in a nonparticulate component of the chicken soup. All of the vegetables present in the soup and the chicken inspanidually had inhibitory activity, although only the chicken lacked cytotoxic activity. Interestingly, the complete soup also lacked cytotoxic activity. Commercial soups varied greatly in their inhibitory activity. The present study, therefore, suggests that chicken soup may contain a number of substances with beneficial medicinal activity. A mild anti-inflammatory effect could be one mechanism by which the soup could result in the mitigation of symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections.

    * chicken soup
    * neutrophil chemotaxis

Chicken soup has been regarded as a remedy for centuries. The Egyptian Jewish physician and philosopher Moshe ben Maimon (Maimonides) recommended chicken soup for respiratory tract symptoms in his 12th century treatise, reportedly drawing on classical Greek sources.1234 So widely recommended is chicken soup in the Jewish tradition, that it is referred to by a variety of synonyms as Jewish penicillin, bohbymycetin, and bobamycin.56 Chicken soup is, however, also recommended for similar purposes in a variety of other traditions suggesting multiple independent discoveries.7

Colds are generally the result of transient infections of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract with a variety of viruses including, but not limited to, the rhinoviruses.8910 While incompletely understood, the viral infection leads to the stimulation of acytokine cascade.1112 It is likely that many, if not most, of the symptoms related to colds are consequent to the inflammatory response thus initiated.131415 The activation of common physiologic pathways likely accounts for the marked similarity of symptoms that result from colds. In this regard, colds are associated with the generation of neutrophil chemotactic activities11121315 and with the recruitment of neutrophils to the epithelial surface of the airways.12131617 Since neutrophil products are potent secretagogues,18 this may be one mechanism by which colds commonly lead to cough and sputum from a spanerse set of infections.

Chicken soup may have a number of beneficial effects for an inspanidual with a cold. These could include actions as spanerse as improving hydration and nutritional status19 and accelerating mucosal clearance.5 The nature of the direct cytotoxic actions on microorganisms are controversial.62021 Another potential mechanism for beneficial effects could be an attenuation of the inflammatory response. In order to evaluate that possibility, the ability of chicken soup to inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis in response to standard chemotactic stimuli was evaluated and demonstrated in the current study. These results provide one mechanistic basis in support of the traditional claims made for chicken soup as a remedy.
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Materials and Methods

Traditional chicken soup was prepared according to a family recipe, which will be referred to as “Grandma’s soup” (C. Fleischer; personal communication; 1970). This recipe is as follows:

• 1 5- to 6-lb stewing hen or baking chicken;

• 1 package of chicken wings;

• 3 large onions;

• 1 large sweet potato;

• 3 parsnips;

• 2 turnips;

• 11 to 12 large carrots;

• 5 to 6 celery stems;

• 1 bunch of parsley; and

• salt and pepper to taste.

Clean the chicken, put it in a large pot, and cover it with cold water. Bring the water to a boil. Add the chicken wings, onions, sweet potato, parsnips, turnips, and carrots. Boil about 1.5 h. Remove fat from the surface as it accumulates. Add the parsley and celery. Cook the mixture about 45 min longer. Remove the chicken. The chicken is not used further for the soup. (The meat makes excellent chicken parmesan.) Put the vegetables in a food processor until they are chopped fine or pass through a strainer. Both were performed in the present study

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